The following sections of this report provide information about Zambia’s network landscape and internet penetration levels, its legal environment with respect to freedom of expression, access to information and privacy, as well as about cases of censorship and surveillance that have previously been reported in the country.
The remainder of the report documents the methodology and key findings of this study.
Zambia is a landlocked country in Southern Africa, bordering with Tanzania, Zimbabwe, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Angola, Malawi, Mozambique, Botswana and Namibia.
Unlike most of its neighbors, Zambia is appear to include some of the factors that led to Zambia’s transition to a multi-party democracy and presidential system in 1991.
While freedom of expression is guaranteed under Zambia’s Constitution, in practice this right can be limited by broad interpretations of laws that restrict expression in the interest of national security, public order and safety.
Zambia’s Constitution was recently .” Clause 2 of Article 23 explicitly prohibits the State from exercising control or interfering with the production or circulation of publications, or with the dissemination of information through any media.
Zambia was one of the first countries in Sub-Saharan Africa to adopt the internet, when satellite and dial-up technology were installed at the University of Zambia in the early 1990s.
Today, three operators provide Zambia’s national fiber backbone: , which is privately-owned.
Zambia’s , for example, includes clauses that criminalize the defamation of the president and allow the president to ban publications that are considered to be “contrary to the public interest”.
Article 22 of the guarantees the right to access information.
Zambia has since held a number of general elections within this new framework.