Children under about 10 years of age are "-chan", -chan continues to be used as a term of endearment, especially for girls, into adulthood.
Parents will probably always call their daughters -chan and their sons -kun.
The word is frequently spelled sempai according to the original version of Hepburn. It is obsolete, if you try to use it with modern Japanese they will think your brain has been addled by watching too many samurai movies.
-dono, as well as the standalone titles Dono and O-dono (お殿) are much higher status than -sama.
(-san is a contraction of -sama, by the way, both are relatively modern words). Like -san, it is used to denote respect for someone. Sometimes it is used to refer to one's own or another person's mother (母上 (haha-ue)) or father (父上 (chichi-ue)).
Adults will use -chan as a term of endearment to women with whom they are on close terms.
Sexist Japanese men will also use it to address waitresses and other junior women.
This is still quite common in Japan and is usually considered acceptable; feminism is lagging behind the West. It is also used as a way of describing someone for who you have strong feelings towards such as a girlfriend or a crush that you would only adress as chan while talking to friends. Note that the kanji for 'sen' is the same kanji in both sensei and senpai -- it originally means something like 'wizard.' A senpai is specifically a male student more senior than the speaker.
-senpai (先輩): Used to address senior members in an academic environment or in sports clubs. Elder students have a leadership role with junior students and 'senpai' recognizes that.
A person may be addressed with the "-san" suffix if the speaker does not know the subject well, but the speaker does not wish to be rude to the subject, or when the subject has a higher social rank than the speaker. (Well, some people can be offended by anything, but that is a different issue.) -san is used for both males and females.
Girls become -san when entering high school, boys become -san when leaving high school.
An older man would never call a younger man senpai, it is always from a junior student to a more senior male student. It can be used as a title "-sensei", or as a standalone title, Sensei. Either sensei or -sama is correct for a teacher, but sensei is probably preferred, especially if the speaker has benefited from or hopes to benefit from the sensei's knowledge.
Recently senior female students have started to be addressed as senpai, but this is not yet widespread. You call someone that teaches you a particular subject "-sensei". -dono or -tono (both written 殿) is the title that literally means 'Lord' or 'Lady,' and also 'milord' and 'milady'.
I can't explain in which cases you call someone "-sama" other than the obvious cases ("oto-sama" (otō-sama) - instead of "oto-san" (otō-san) - to call your father if you have a rich family and have to show very very big big big respect to him ; or when talking to a "Lord") so if you have more info about it, feel free to provide details. Also could be used when addressing a male of lesser status.