This medieval city combines residential, religious and military structures, characteristic of a medieval urbanism built up over the centuries by Christian and then Muslim dynasties.The city flourished in the 10th and 11th centuries CE when it became the capital of the medieval Armenian kingdom of the Bagratides and profited from control of one branch of the Silk Road.The steep limestone cliffs on the eastern side of the Rock of Gibraltar contain four caves with archaeological and paleontological deposits that provide evidence of Neanderthal occupation over a span of more than 100,000 years.
Its aim was to protect the interests of sugar cane planters at a time when European powers were competing for control of the Eastern Caribbean.
Turkey Criteria: (ii)(iii)(iv) This site is located on a secluded plateau of northeast Turkey overlooking a ravine that forms a natural border with Armenia.
It comprises the archaeological remains of a monastic and scholastic institution dating from the 3rd century BCE to the 13th century CE.
It includes (residential and educational buildings) and important art works in stucco, stone and metal.
These islets harbour the remains of stone palaces, temples, tombs and residential domains built between 12 CE.
These ruins represent the ceremonial centre of the Saudeleur dynasty, a vibrant period in Pacific Island culture.
The historical development of the site testifies to the development of Buddhism into a religion and the flourishing of monastic and educational traditions. Founded in 356 BC by the Macedonian King Philip II, the city developed as a “small Rome” with the establishment of the Roman Empire in the decades following the Battle of Philippi, in 42 BCE.
The vibrant Hellenistic city of Philip II, of which the walls and their gates, the theatre and the funerary heroon (temple) are to be seen, was supplemented with Roman public buildings such as the Forum and a monumental terrace with temples to its north.
Spain Criteria: (i)(iii)(iv) Located at the heart of Andalusia in southern Spain, the site comprises three megalithic monuments: the Menga and Viera dolmens and the Tholos of El Romeral, and two natural monuments: La Peña de los Enamorados and El Torcal mountainous formations, which are landmarks within the property.