During a lethal injection, a fatal dosage of potassium chloride is administered intravenously.
: When using a compound microscope this term refers to the thickness of the subject that is in focus.
The Elodea leaf is composed of two layers of cells.
A paralyzing agent, such as pancuronium bromide or tubocurarine chloride, plus a lethal dosage of a general anesthetic, such as sodium thiopental (sodium pentothal) are usually given before the potassium chloride is administered.
Tubocurarine is the active ingredient of curare, an extract from the bark and stems of the South American vine (Chondodendron tomentosum).
You must focus up and down using the fine adjustment knob on the microscope to see both layers of cells.: Shrinkage of the protoplast or cell contents due to water loss when a drop of salt water (Na Cl) is added to the Elodea slide.
Because of all the salt ions (Na and Cl- ions) outside the cell membrane of each Elodea cell, water molecules move out of the cell membrane causing the cell membrane and it contents to shrink into a blob in the center of the cell wall.
The porous, cellulose wall does not shrink because the salt ions easily pass through the wall but cannot pass through the membrane.
Therefore, the cell membrane (not the cell wall) loses water molecules and shrinks.: When comparing two solutions, such as the inside of a red blood cell (RBC) with the solution they are placed in, the solution with the greater salt concentration is hypertonic, while the solution with the lower salt concentration is hypotonic.
Examples of diffusion include perfume molecules in the air, ether molecules in a classroom, sugar molecules in a cup of coffee, methylene blue molecules in a bowl of clear gelatin, etc.: Movement of molecules and ions through a cell membrane against a diffusion gradient (i.e. This movement involves carrier proteins (channels) in the cell membrane and requires energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate).
Active transport occurs during a nerve impulse or action potential (wave of depolarization) when a nerve cell membrane suddenly becomes permeable to sodium ions.
Amazonian Indians use the gummy extract to coat the poison darts of their blowguns.