That is, the Catholic Church considers the Bishop of Rome, the Pope, to be the successor to Saint Peter.question whether there was a formal link between Peter and the modern papacy, and Raymond E.
The whole period of the next five centuries was dominated by the struggle between Christianity and Islam throughout the Mediterranean Basin.
The battles of Poitiers, and Toulouse preserved the Catholic west, even though Rome itself was ravaged in 850, and Constantinople besieged.
After the destruction of the western Roman Empire, the church was a major factor in the preservation of classical civilization, establishing monasteries, and sending missionaries to convert the peoples of northern Europe, as far as Ireland in the north.
Some of these missionaries, such as Palladius Bishop of Ireland, were from the West and some, such as Theodore of Tarsus Archbishop of Canterbury, were from the East, as these regions had yet to split.
Christianity spread throughout the early Roman Empire, despite persecutions due to conflicts with the pagan state religion.
In 313, the struggles of the Early Church were lessened by the legalisation of Christianity by the Emperor Constantine I.The New Testament records Jesus' activities and teaching, his appointment of the twelve Apostles, and his instructions to them to continue his work.Catholics hold that Saint Peter was Rome's first bishop and the consecrator of Linus as its next bishop, thus starting the unbroken line which includes the current pontiff, Pope Francis.The government had encouraged inhabitants, especially those in urban areas, to learn Greek, and the common language allowed ideas to be more easily expressed and understood.At first, Christians continued to worship alongside Jewish believers, which historians refer to as Jewish Christianity, but within twenty years of Jesus's death, Sunday was being regarded as the primary day of worship.In the east, the Byzantine Empire preserved Orthodoxy, well after the massive invasions of Islam in the mid-7th century.