Article uses three different citation styles: inline footnotes, a "references section" and a "further reading" section. For example, the first citation, Leeker & Carlozzi, points to the further reading section. Other scholars define infidelity as a violation according to the subjective feeling that one's partner has violated a set of rules or relationship norms; this violation results in feelings of sexual jealousy and rivalry.
The second citation (Weeks) is both defined in text and pointed at using a footnote. In marital relationships, exclusivity expectations are commonly assumed although they are not always met.
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Interviews with people in non-monogamous relationships since 1972 by the GSS have shown that approximately 12% of men and 7% of women admit to having had an extramarital relationship.
Results, however, vary year by year, and also by age-group surveyed.
A survey conducted in 1990 found 2.2% of married participants reported having more than one partner during the past year.
In general, national surveys conducted in the early 1990s reported that between 15-25% of married Americans reported having extramarital affairs.
On the other hand, when sex ratios are low, promiscuity is less common because women are in demand and since they desire monogamy and commitment, in order for men to remain competitive in the pool of mates, they must respond to these desires.
Support for this theory comes from evidence showing higher divorce rates in countries with lower sex ratios and higher monogamy rates in countries with higher sex ratios.
Frequencies as high as 30% are sometimes assumed in the media, but research Such studies show that covert illegitimacy is in fact less than 10% among the sampled African populations, less than 5% among the sampled Native American and Polynesian populations, less than 2% of the sampled Middle Eastern population, and generally 1–2% among European samples.
Strategic pluralism is a theory that focuses on how environmental factors influence mating strategies.
For example, one study conducted by the University of Washington, Seattle found slightly, or significantly higher rates of infidelity for populations under 35, or older than 60.